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The PCMCIA Developer's Guide-3rd edition
By Michael T. Mori & W. Dean Welder

This book is only available to purchase through the PCMCIA Organization.

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 PCMCIA Organization 2
1.3 PCMCIA - The Evolving Standard 4
1.4 PC Card Overview 4
1.5 The Expectations of the PC Card Standard 7
1.6 What's New in the Third Edition 8
1.7 Updates and Corrections to the PCMCIA Developer's Guide 8
2.0 PC Card Standards 9
2.1 History of the PC Card Standard 9
2.2 Electrical Specification 10
2.3 Physical Specification 12
2.4 Metaformat Specification 13
2.5 Card Services Specification 14
2.5.1 Memory Technology Drivers 15
2.6 Socket Services Specification 15
2.7 Media Storage Formats Specification 16
2.8 PC Card ATA Mass Storage Specification 16
2.9 Execute In Place (XIP) 16
2.10 Guidelines 16
2.10.1 Electrical Guidelines 16
2.10.2 Physical Guidelines 17
2.10.3 Software Guidelines 17
2.11 Auto Indexing Mass Storage (AIMS) Specification 17
2.12 Exchangeable Card Architecture (ExCA) 18
2.13 Standards Testing 19
3.0 Designing a 16-bit PC Card Host Adapter 21
3.1 PC Card Host Implementation 21
3.1.1 Host Bus Interface 24
3.1.2 Card Interface 27
3.1.3 Power Control 30
3.1.4 Vpp Generation 31
3.1.5 3.3/5 Volt Host Adapter Support 32
3.1.6 Supporting Multiple Voltages 35
3.1.7 Event Wake-up 37
3.1.8 Digital Audio Waveform Support 38
3.1.9 Power Management Modes 38
3.2 Socket Operation 38
3.2.1 Access Timing Control 39
3.2.2 Memory Operation 40
3.2.3 I/O Operation 41
3.2.4 Memory and I/O Operation 41
3.3 Mechanical Consideration 42
3.4 Socket Controller Overview 42
3.4.1 Intel 82365SL PCIC 43
3.4.2 Databook DB86081/82, DB86084,184 43
3.4.3 Cirrus CL-PD6710/6720/6722/6729/6730 43
3.4.4 Vadem VG-365, VG-465, VG-468 and VG-469 44
3.4.5 Fujitsu MB86301 44
3.5 Other Controller Implementations 44
3.5.1 Chips and Technology F8680 44
3.5.2 Vadem VG-230 44
3.6 Drive Bay Design 46
3.7 Testing Your Host Implementation 47
3.8 Notes on PC Card Compatibility Problems 48
3.9 PC Card Specification Release Compatibility 50
4.0 - Designing a 16-bit PC Card Peripheral 51
4.1 General Card Design Guidelines 51
4.1.1 16-bit PC Card Interface 52
4.1.2 Card Power-up and Reset 56
4.1.3 Card Power 57
4.2 Memory PC Card Design 58
4.2.1 Common Memory Area 59
4.2.2 Attribute Memory Area 61
4.2.3 Battery Voltage Detect 62
4.2.4 PC Card Write Protect 62
4.2.5 Mixed Memory PC Card Designs 63
4.2.6 Memory Array Buffering 63
4.3 16-bit I/O PC Card Design 63
4.3.1 Function Configuration Registers 64
4.3.2 Attribute Memory For I/O PC Cards 68
4.3.3 I/O Address Decode 68
4.3.4 Interrupt Generation 69
4.4 ATA Mass Storage Design 69
4.5 Mechanical Design 70
4.5.1 Card Connectors And Frames 70
4.5.2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Design 71
4.5.3 Component Selection 72
4.5.4 Still Need More Room? 74
4.6 PC Card Power Management 74
4.6.1 Card Power Consumption 75
4.6.2 Power Down Modes 75
4.7 Silicon Support For PC Card Designs 76
4.7.1 FPGAs 76
4.7.2 Zilog Z86017/16017 77
4.7.3 National Semiconductor PCM16C02 77
4.7.4 Specific Card-side controller chips 78
4.8 PC Card Support Software 78
4.9 Agency Approvals 78
4.10 Labeling the PC Card 79
4.11 Host Compatibility Problems - Some Notes 79
4.12 Compatibility and Compliance Testing 81
4.13 Multiple Function I/O PC Cards 82
4.13.1 Multiple Function Hardware 82
4.13.2 Multiple Function Card Function Configuration Registers 83
4.13.3 I/O Address Decode 85
4.13.4 Handling Multiple Function Interrupts 85
4.13.5 PC Card and Function Reset 87
4.13.6 Implementation of a Multiple Function PC Card 87
4.13.7 Multiple-Function Card Information Structure 88
4.14 Direct Memory Access (DMA) 89
4.15 Low Voltage and Multiple Voltage PC Cards 92
4.15.1 3.3V Only PC Card 93
4.15.2 3.3V/5.0V PC Card 93
4.15.3 Software Support for Low Voltage PC Cards 97
5.0 Creating a Card Information Structure 99
5.1 What is a CIS? 99
5.2 A PC Card SCSI Adapter 100
5.3 PC Card SCSI Adapter CIS Design 101
5.3.1 The Device Information Tuple - CISTPL_DEVICE (01h) 101
5.3.2 The Version 1 Tuple - CISTPL_VERS_1 (15h) 101
5.3.3 The Manufacturer's ID Tuple - CISTPL_MANFID (20h) 102
5.3.4 The Function ID Tuple - CISTPL_FUNCID (21h) 103
5.3.5 The Configuration Tuple - CISTPL_CONFIG (1Ah) 104
5.3.6 The Configuration Table Entry tuple - CISTPL_CFTABLE_ENTRY (1Bh) 104
5.3.6.1 The Power Description Structure - TPCE_PD 106
5.3.6.2 The Configuration Timing Information Field - TPCE_TD 108
5.3.6.3 The I/O Space Descriptor Field 109
5.3.6.4 The IRQ Descriptor Field 111
5.3.6.5 The Memory Space Descriptor Field 112
5.3.6.6 Configuration Table Entry tuple - Index 20h and 21h 113
5.3.6.7 Creating Additional Configuration Entries 114
5.3.7 The No Link Tuple - CISTPL_NO_LINK 115
5.3.8 The End of Tuples - CISTPL_END 115
5.4 Experimenting With the Example CIS 115
5.5 How To Create an Incompatible CIS 115
6.0 PC Card Software Architecture 117
6.1 PCMCIA Software Overview 117
6.2 Socket Services 119
6.3 Card Services 121
6.3.1 Card Services Services 121
6.3.2 Callback Events 124
6.3.3 System Resource Management 126
6.3.4 Memory Technology Drivers 126
6.3.5 Power Management 127
6.4 Using Card Services 129
6.4.1 Client Initialization and Registration 130
6.4.2 Registering As A Client 131
6.4.3 Handling Callbacks 131
6.4.4 Card Services Interrupt Handling 132
6.4.5 What Happens when a Card Is Plugged In 132
6.4.6 I/O Card Insertion Callback Processing 133
6.4.7 Processing Memory Card Insertion 136
6.4.8 Using Bulk Memory Services 137
6.4.9 Processing Tuples 139
6.4.10 Processing Card Removal 139
6.4.11 PC Card Reset Processing 140
6.4.12 Requesting Exclusive Use of a Card 142
6.4.13 Utility Functions 144
6.4.14 Multiple Function Card Support 144
6.4.15 DMA Support 146
6.4.16 Operation of a Memory Technology Driver 147
6.4.17 Card Services Version Compatibility 148
7.0 PC Card Support in a PC Architecture 149
7.1 Storage Card Support 149
7.1.1 Memory Card Support 150
7.1.2 Memory Card Device Driver 151
7.1.3 Flash Filing Systems (FFS) and Flash Translation Layer (FTL) 151
7.1.4 PC Card ATA support 153
7.2 Enablers 154
7.2.1 Generic Enabler and Super Clients 154
7.2.2 Specific Card Enablers 154
7.2.3 Point Enablers 156
7.3 Resource Allocation 157
7.4 Installation Program and User Documentation 158
7.5 Booting from PC Card Devices 159
7.5.1 Booting from an SRAM/ROM device 159
7.5.2 Booting from an ATA Device 159
7.5.3 Booting from a Flash Memory Device 159
7.6 PC Card Utilities 159
7.7 PCMCIA and Linux 160
8.0 Some Real Software Products 161
8.1 Differences Between the Major Vendors 162
8.1.1 Drive Mapping 162
8.1.2 Generic Enabler Strategy 163
8.1.3 Insertion/Removal Beeps 163
8.1.4 Bulk Memory/Memory Technology Driver Support 164
8.1.5 Resource Allocation 164
8.1.6 Microsoft Windows Support 164
8.2 CardWare 165
8.2.1 CardWare - Resource Management 166
8.2.2 CardWare - Enablers 167
8.2.3 CardWare - User Interface 167
8.2.4 CardWare - Storage Card Support 167
8.2.5 CardWare - Power Management 168
8.2.6 CardWare - General Notes 169
8.2.7 CardWare - Versions 169
8.2.8 CardWare - New Features 169
8.2.9 CardWare - File list 170
8.3 Phoenix Technology - PCM3+ 171
8.3.1 Phoenix PCM3+ - Resource Management 173
8.3.2 Phoenix PCM3+ - Enablers 173
8.3.3 Phoenix PCM3+ - User Interface 173
8.3.4 Phoenix PCM3+ - Storage Card Support 174
8.3.5 Phoenix PCM3+ - Power Management 174
8.3.6 Phoenix PCM3+ - General Notes 175
8.3.7 Phoenix PCM3+ - Versions 175
8.3.8 Phoenix PCM3+ - New Features 176
8.3.9 Phoenix PCM3+ - File List 176
8.4 SystemSoft - CardSoft 177
8.4.1 SystemSoft CardSoft - Resource Management 179
8.4.2 SystemSoft CardSoft - Enablers 179
8.4.3 SystemSoft CardSoft - Power Management 179
8.4.4 SystemSoft CardSoft - Storage Card Support 179
8.4.5 SystemSoft CardSoft - User Interface 180
8.4.6 SystemSoft CardSoft - General Notes 180
8.4.7 SystemSoft CardSoft - File List 181
8.4.8 SystemSoft CardSoft - Future Enhancements 181
8.5 American Megatrends (AMI) - AMICARDZ( 182
8.5.1 AMICARDZ - Resource Management 184
8.5.2 AMICARDZ - Enablers 184
8.5.3 AMICARDZ - Storage Cards 184
8.5.4 AMICARDZ - User Interface 185
8.5.5 AMICARDZ - General Notes 185
8.5.6 AMICARDZ - File list 186
8.6 IBM - PlayAtWill 187
8.6.1 IBM PlayAtWill - Resource Management 188
8.6.2 IBM PlayAtWill - Enablers 188
8.6.3 IBM PlayAtWill - Storage Card Support 188
8.6.4 IBM PlayAtWill -Power Management 189
8.6.5 IBM PlayAtWill - User Interface 189
8.6.6 IBM PlayAtWill - OS/2 Support 190
8.6.7 IBM PlayAtWill - File list 191
9.0 PC Cards and Microsoft Windows 193
9.1 Windows 95/98 and the Plug and Play Architecture 194
9.1.1 The Configuration Manager and Resource Arbitrator 195
9.1.2 Bus Enumerators 195
9.1.3 Device Identifiers 195
9.2 Requirements for PC Cards 196
9.2.1 I/O Cards 196
9.2.2 Memory Cards 196
9.2.3 Testing Your CIS 197
9.3 Host Socket Design for Windows 197
9.4 Writing Device Driver and Applications 197
9.4.1 VxD Drivers 198
9.4.2 Windows Driver Model Drivers (WDM) 198
9.5 Card Services Under Windows 95 198
9.6 Creating a Special Socket Services for Windows 95 199
9.7 Card Support Under Windows 95/98 199
9.7.1 Low Voltage Support Under Windows 95/98 199
9.7.2 Zoomed Video Support Under Windows 200
9.7.3 PC Card Support Files Under Windows 95/98 200
9.8 Windows Step by Step 201
9.9 Windows 95 Version Information 201
9.10 Windows NT 4.0 203
10.0 Zoomed Video 205
10.1 The Video Interface 206
10.2 The Audio Interface 206
10.3 Software Support 207
10.4 Implementing a Zoomed Video Host 207
10.5 Designing a Zoomed Video PC Card 209
10.5.1 Indirect Addressing 209
10.5.2 Zoomed Video PC Card Example 210
10.6 Zoomed Video Signals 212
11.0 CardBus 213
11.1 CardBus Overview 214
11.1.1 CardBus Signal Pins 216
11.1.2 Automatic Detection of CardBus Cards 218
11.2 CardBus Bus Cycles 219
11.2.1 CardBus Bus Commands 220
11.2.2 Byte Alignment 220
11.2.3 Configuration Read/Writes 221
11.3 CardBus Bus Master Operation 221
11.4 Parity Generation and Error Reporting 222
11.5 Address Decoding 222
11.6 Other CardBus features 223
11.6.1 Clock Control 223
11.6.2 Status Change and Remote Wake-up 224
11.6.3 Card Audio Support 224
11.7 CardBus Architecture 225
11.7.1 CardBus Configuration Space 225
11.8 CardBus Status Registers 231
11.8.1 Function Event Register 232
11.8.2 Function Event Mask Register 232
11.8.3 Function Present State Register 233
11.8.4 Force Event Capability Register 233
11.9 Expansion ROMs 233
11.10 Card Services Extensions for CardBus 234
11.11 Socket Services Extensions 235
11.12 Metaformat Extensions 236
11.13 Electrical Requirements 236
11.13.1 CardBus PC Card Current Consumption 237
11.14 Mechanical Requirements 237
12.0 CardBus Host Controllers 239
12.1 CardBus Host Controller Architecture 239
12.2 Register Description 239
12.2.1 PCI Configuration Space 239
12.2.2 CardBus Socket Registers 239
12.2.3 ExCA Area 241
12.3 Extensions 241
12.3.1 Socket Power Control 241
12.3.2 Interrupts 242
12.3.3 16-bit DMA 243
12.3.3.1 PC/PCI DMA 243
12.3.3.2 Distributed DMA 243
12.3.4 Zoomed Video 244
12.3.5 PCI Power Management 244
12.3.6 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) 244
12.4 Using a CardBus Controller 244
12.4.1 Initializing a CardBus Controller 244
12.4.2 CardBus Configuration 245
13.0 Other Card Standards 247
13.1 CompactFlashTM 247
13.1.1 CompactFlash Physical 248
13.1.1.1 CompactFlash Connector 250
13.1.1.2 Card Enclosures 250
13.1.1.3 CompactFlash Host Connectors 250
13.1.1.4 Printed Circuit Boards for CompactFlash 250
13.1.2 CompactFlash Electrical 250
13.1.2.1 Signal Description 251
13.1.2.2 CompactFlash Power 251
13.1.2.3 CompactFlash Host Interface 252
13.1.3 CompactFlash Storage Card 252
13.1.3.1 PC Card ATA Mode 252
13.1.3.2 True IDE Mode 253
13.2 Miniature Card 254
13.2.1 Miniature Card Architecture 254
13.2.2 Miniature Card Power 254
13.2.3 Card Identification - Attribute Information Structure 255
13.2.3.1 Parallel AIS 255
13.2.3.2 Serial AIS 255
13.2.4 Host Interface 256
13.2.4.1 8-bit Host Interface 257
13.2.4.2 DRAM Host Interface 257
13.2.5 Miniature Card Physical 257
13.2.5.1 Miniature Card Keying 259
13.2.5.2 Write Protect 259
13.2.5.3 Miniature Card Enclosures 259
13.2.5.4 Host Connectors 259
13.3 MultiMediaCard 261
13.3.1 MultiMedia Card Mechanical 261
13.3.2 MultiMedia Card Electrical 262
13.4 Small PCI Card (SPCI) 263
13.4.1 Small PCI Card Mechanical 263
13.4.2 Small PCI Card Electrical 265
13.5 SmartMedia Card (SSFDC) 267
13.5.1 SmartMedia Physical 267
13.5.2 SmartMedia Electrical 268
13.5.3 SmartMedia Format 269
13.6 Sony Memory StickTM 270
14.0 The Future of PCMCIA 271
14.1 Future Enhancements to the PC Card Standard 271
14.2 CardBay 271
14.3 Self Certification 272
14.4 Set Top Boxes 272
15.0 PC Card Products 273
15.1 Memory PC Cards 273
15.1.1 SRAM PC Cards 273
15.1.2 ROM PC Cards 274
15.1.3 FLASH PC Cards 274
15.1.4 PSRAM PC Cards 274
15.1.5 Attribute Space for Memory PC Cards 275
15.2 I/O Cards 275
15.2.1 Modem PC Cards 276
15.2.2 Wired Network PC Cards 279
15.2.3 Wireless Local Area Network PC Cards 279
15.2.4 SCSI PC Cards 279
15.2.5 Special Purpose PC Cards 280
15.3 Mass Storage Products 280
15.3.1 FLASH Based ATA PC Cards 281
15.3.2 Rotating ATA PC Cards 281
15.4 PC Card Host Interfaces for Desktops 282
15.4.1 Memory PC Card Reader/Writers 282
15.4.2 Full Release 2.1 Compatible Interfaces 282
15.4.3 CardBus PC Card Host Adapters 282
15.5 Development Tools 283
15.6 Host Computers 283
16.0 Product Directory Information 285
16.1 Memory Cards 285
16.2 PC Card Modems 306
16.3 ATA Flash PC Cards 313
16.4 ATA Hard Disks PC Cards 315
16.5 PC Card Network Adapters 316
16.6 Wireless PC Cards 322
16.7 Other PC Cards 324
16.8 PC Card Host Adapters 348
16.9 PC Card Host Computers 357
16.10 CompactFlash Cards 365
16.11 SmartMedia (SSFDC) Memory Cards 367
16.12 Miniature Cards 370
16.13 PCMCIA Silicon Support Directory 372
16.13.1 PC Card Socket Controllers 372
16.13.2 Vpp/Vcc Generators/Regulators 376
16.13.3 Vpp and Vcc Power Switches 376
16.13.4 Card Side Interfaces 377
16.13.5 Other Card Side Silicon 378
16.13.6 Attribute Memory 381
16.13.7 Zoomed Video Capable Chips 381
16.14 PC Card Development and Production Tools 382
16.14.1 Extender Boards 382
16.14.2 Prototyping Accessories and Tools 384
16.14.3 Hardware Development Software 384
16.14.4 PC Card Test Systems and Duplicators 385
16.14.5 Host Socket Testers 386
16.14.6 Production Tools 386
16.14.7Analyzers 387
16.15 Connectors, Card Frames, and Components 387
16.15.1 Host Sockets 387
16.15.2 Card Frames 389
16.15.3 Card Side Connectors 390
16.15.4 Cables And Cable Assemblies 391
16.15.5 Packing Accessories 391
16.15.6 PC Card Labels 392
16.15.7 Printed Circuit Boards 392
16.15.8 Other PC Card Components 393
16.16 PC Card Software and Services 393
16.16.1 Software Development Tools 395
16.16.2 Debuggers 395
16.17 PC Card and System Manufacturer Directory 396
16.18 OEM/Developer Directory 410

Appendix

Appendix A: Connector and Timing Reference A-1
A.1 PC Card Connector Pinouts A-1
A.2 16-bit PC Card I/O Read Timing A-6
A.3 16-bit PC Card I/O Write Timing A-7
A.4 16-bit PC Card Memory Read Timing A-8
A.5 16-bit PC Card Memory Write Timing A-9
A.6 PC Card Mechanical Dimensions A-11
A.7 Small PC Card Mechanical Dimensions A-12
Appendix B: Card Services Services B-1
B.1 Card Services Service Reference B-12
B.2 Card Services Return Codes B-92
B.3 Callback Interface B-93
B.4 MTD Interface Description B-108
Appendix C: Socket Services Reference C-1
C.1 Socket Services Service Functions C-5
C.2 Socket Services Return Codes C-33
Appendix D: CIS Reference D-1
D.1 Basic Compatibility Tuples D-2
D.2 Layer 2 - Data Recording Format Tuples D-30
D.3 Layer 3 - Data Organization Tuples D-35
D.4 Layer 4 - System Specific Standards D-35
D.5 Modem Extension Tuples D-38
D.6 ATA Extension Tuples D-46
D.7 LAN Function Extension Tuple D-47
D.8 ExCA Recommended Tuples D-49
D.9 Sample CIS Implementations D-51
D.9.1 Sample SRAM CIS implementation D-51
D.9.2 Sample FLASH ROM Card CIS implementation D-52
D.9.3 Sample FAX Modem Card CIS implementation D-53
Appendix E: Glossary E-1
Appendix F: PCMCIA Developer's Guide CDROM F-1
Appendix G: PCIC and CardBus Controller Reference G-1
Appendix G.1 PCIC Reference G-1
Appendix G.2 Common CardBus Host Controller Register List G-13
G.2.1 PCI Configuration Space G-13
G.2.2 CardBus Socket Registers G-17
G.2.3 ExCA Socket Registers G-19
G.3 PCI Based Socket Controllers PCI ID List G-23
Appendix H: Where to Get More Information H-1
H.1 Periodicals H-1
H.2 Information Online H-1
H.3 Classes, Seminars and Training Material H-1
H.4 Technical Reference Material H-2
H.5 Marketing Research H-5
H.6 Books H-5

List of Figures

Figure 1.2-1 The PCMCIA Organization 3
Figure 1.4-1 Type I PC Card 4
Figure 1.4-2 Type II PC Card 5
Figure 1.4-3 Type III PC Card 5
Figure 1.4-4 PC Card Components 6
Figure 3.1-1 Socket Controller Implementation 21
Figure 3.1-2 16-bit PC Card Socket Controller Block Diagram 23
Figure 3.1-3 PCIC Socket Controller Supporting Two Sockets 24
Figure 3.1-4 Socket Controller Host Interface 25
Figure 3.1-5 PCI Host Interface using the CL-PD6729/6730 27
Figure 3.1-6 Bufferless Socket Interface 28
Figure 3.1-7 Card Insertion Power/Signal Sequencing 29
Figure 3.1-8 Siliconix Si9405DY, Logic Level P-Channel Load Switch 30
Figure 3.1-9 Vpp Generation Using Linear Technology LT1109 31
Figure 3.1-10 Vpp Switching Diagram 32
Figure 3.1-11 Voltage Keys 33
Figure 3.1-12 3.3/5V Support Block Diagram 36
Figure 3.1-13 Switching 3.3V and 5V using the Linear Technology LTC1472 37
Figure 3.1-14 Speaker Driver 38
Figure 3.2-1 Memory Mapping Example 40
Figure 3.2-2 I/O Mapping Example 41
Figure 3.6-1 PC Card Drive Bay Configuration 1 46
Figure 3.6-2 PC Card Drive Bay Configuration 2 47
Figure 3.7-1 ExCA Test Diagram 48
Figure 4.1-1 SPKR# Signal Routing 55
Figure 4.1-2 PC Card Reset/Power Signal Sequencing 57
Figure 4.2-1 Memory Card Block Diagram 59
Figure 4.2-2 Byte Steering Logic 60
Figure 4.2-3 Mixed Memory PC Card with attribute 63
Figure 4.3-1 I/O PC Card Block Diagram 64
Figure 4.3-2 Example of FCR Implementation 65
Figure 4.5-1 Type II Symmetric Connector Enclosure 71
Figure 4.5-2 Type II Offset Connector Enclosure 71
Figure 4.5-3 Solving Height Problems through board routing 72
Figure 4.5-4 Type I Extended PC Card 74
Figure 4.7-1 Zilog 86017 PCMCIA Interface 77
Figure 4.13-1 Multiple Function I/O PC Card Block Diagram 83
Figure 4.13-2 Example of Multiple-Function attribute memory space 84
Figure 4.13-3 Handling Interrupt on a Multiple Function PC Card 86
Figure 4.13-4 National PCM16C00 Multiple Function PC Card Interface 87
Figure 4.13-5 Multiple Function CIS example 89
Figure 4.14-1 DMA Hardware Configuration Example 90
Figure 4.14-2 DMA Timing 91
Figure 4.15-1 Wide Margin PC Card Design 94
Figure 4.15-2 3.3/5V PC Card Design with 5V tolerant I/O 94
Figure 4.15-3 3.3/5V PC Card Design with internal logic at 3.3V and Level Conversion 95
Figure 4.15-4 3.3/5V PC Card Design with internal logic at 5.0V and Level Conversion 96
Figure 4.15-5 MAX751 DC to DC converter 96
Figure 6.1-1 PCMCIA Software Architecture 118
Figure 6.2-1 Socket Services Block Diagram 120
Figure 6.3-1 Card Services Architecture 122
Figure 6.3-2 Card Service Callback Sequence 125
Figure 6.3-3 CardServices-Memory Technology Driver Interface 127
Figure 6.3-4 One Possible Application of Power Management Under CS 2.1 127
Figure 6.3-5 Power Management Under Card Services Release 5.0 128
Figure 6.3-6 Suspend - Resume under Release 5.0 129
Figure 6.4-1 Registering as a Client 130
Figure 6.4-2 I/O Client Insertion Callback 134
Figure 6.4-3 Card Service/MTD Interface 138
Figure 6.4-4 I/O Client Removal Processing 140
Figure 6.4-5 Reset Process 141
Figure 6.4-6 Requesting Exclusive Use 143
Figure 6.4-7 Multiple Function Card 145
Figure 6.4-8 MTD Insertion Processing 147
Figure 7.1-1 PC Card Support in a PC Architecture 150
Figure 7.1-2 Flash Translation Layer 152
Figure 7.1-3 Flash File System 153
Figure 7.2-1 Specific and Generic Enabler Interactions 155
Figure 8.0-1 Typical PC Card Software Driver Sets 161
Figure 8.1-1 PC Card logical drive mapping 163
Figure 8.2-1 CardWare 166
Figure 8.2-2 CardWare Drive mapping 168
Figure 8.3-1 Phoenix Technologies - PCM3+ 172
Figure 8.3-2 PC Card Logical Drive Mapping - PCM3+ 174
Figure 8.4-1 SystemSoft - CardSoft 178
Figure 8.4-2 PC Card Logical Drive Mapping - CardSoft 180
Figure 8.5-1 American Megatrends - AMICARDZ 183
Figure 8.5-2 AMICARDZ Drive mapping 184
Figure 8.6-1 IBM PlayAtWill Driver Set 187
Figure 8.6-2 IBM PlayAtWill Storage Card Support Drive Mapping 189
Figure 9.1-1 Windows 95 Plug and Play 194
Figure 10.0-1 Zoomed Video Host Block Diagram 205
Figure 10.4-1 Zoomed video capable host with external buffers 208
Figure 10.4-2 Zoomed video capable host with internal buffers 208
Figure 10.5-1 Zoomed Video PC Card Example 211
Figure 11.0-1 CardBus Overview (Dual function card) 213
Figure 11.2-1 CardBus Read Operation 219
Figure 11.2-2 CardBus Write Operation 219
Figure 11.3-1 CardBus Bus Arbitration 221
Figure 11.5-1 CardBus Base Address Register Usage 223
Figure 11.6-1 Pulse Width Modulation Example 224
Figure 12.2-1 CardBus Controller Register Map 240
Figure 12.2-2 Serial Power Control 242
Figure 12.3-1 Serial to Parallel Interrupt Conversion 243
Figure 13.1-1 CompactFlash Type I Physical 249
Figure 13.1-2 CompactFlash Type II Physical 249
Figure 13.2-1 8-bit interface to Miniature Card 257
Figure 13.2-2 Miniature Card - Bottom Side View 258
Figure 13.2-3 Miniature Card - Top Side View 258
Figure 13.2-4 Miniature Card Host Connector 259
Figure 13.3-1 MultiMedia Card Mechanical 261
Figure 13.4-1 Small PCI Mechanical Construction 264
Figure 13.5-1 SmartMedia Physical Dimension 267
Figure 14.2-1 Card-X Architecture 271
Figure 15.2-1 PC Card Modem - Block Diagram 276
Figure 15.3-1 ATA Flash Disk Block Diagram 281
Figure 15.4-1 PC Card Host Interface 282

List of Tables

Table 2.1-1 PC Card Standard Volumes 9
Table 2.1-2 PC Card Standard Release History 10
Table 2.2-1 Comparison of Release 2.1, 16-bit PC Cards, CardBus, and Zoomed Video 11
Table 2.2-2 16-bit PC Cards, CardBus and ZV interface signals 11
Table 2.4-1 Sample Tuple 13
Table 2.11-1 AIMS Interface map 18
Table 3.1-1 Typical PC Card Power Consumption 31
Table 3.1-2 82365SL VPP Enable States 32
Table 3.1-3 Mixed voltage pin assignments 33
Table 3.1-4 Mixed voltage card/socket interaction 34
Table 3.1-5 Vadem VG-469 VCC power control states 35
Table 3.2-1 Memory window access controls 39
Table 3.2-2 I/O window access controls 39
Table 4.1-1 Card enable (CE1# and CE2#) operation 52
Table 4.1-2 PC Card Interface Logic Levels - 5 V signaling 55
Table 4.1-3 Signal Name Changes 56
Table 4.2-1 Memory Read/Write Functions 61
Table 4.2-2 Battery Voltage Detect Status 62
Table 4.3-1 Function Configuration Registers (FCRs) 65
Table 4.3-2 Configuration Option Register (COR) 66
Table 4.3-3 Function Configuration and Status Register 66
Table 4.3-4 Pin Replacement Register (PRR) 67
Table 4.3-5 Socket and Copy Register 67
Table 4.3-6 Extended Status Register (ESR) 67
Table 4.3-7 I/O Size Register Values 68
Table 4.3-8 I/O Read/Write function 69
Table 4.5-1 SMT component sizes - discrete 72
Table 4.5-2 SMT component sizes - ICs 73
Table 4.5-3 Form factors of non-standard PC Cards 74
Table 4.6-1 Multi level power control 75
Table 4.8-1 PC Card Software Requirements 78
Table 4.13-1 Configuration Option Register (COR) for Multiple Functions 84
Table 4.13-2 Possible I/O Size Register Values 85
Table 4.13-3 CISTPL_LONGLINK_MFC - Multiple-Function Long Link tuple 88
Table 4.14-4 DMA Timing Parameters 91
Table 4.14-5 DMA Support for some common socket controllers 92
Table 4.15-1 Different Ways to Support Low Voltage Operation 93
Table 5.2.1 PC Card SCSI adapter attributes 100
Table 5.3-1 Tuples required for sample SCSI PC Card. 101
Table 5.3-2 Device Information tuple for an I/O PC Card with common memory buffer 101
Table 5.3-3 Version 1/Product Information Tuple 102
Table 5.3-4 Version 1 tuple version numbers 102
Table 5.3-5 Manufacturer ID Tuple 102
Table 5.3-6 Function ID Tuple 103
Table 5.3-7 Defined Functions 103
Table 5.3-8 The Configuration Tuple 104
Table 5.3-9 TPCC_SZ field 104
Table 5.3-10 Configuration Table Entry tuple for SCSI card 105
Table 5.3-11 TPCE_INDX - Configuration Index Byte 105
Table 5.3-12 TPCE_IF - Interface definition byte 105
Table 5.3-13 TPCE_FS - Feature Selection Byte 106
Table 5.3-14 Power bits in Feature Selection Byte (TPCE_FS) 106
Table 5.3-15 Power Description Structure Parameter Selection Byte 107
Table 5.3-16 Power Description Structure Parameter Definition 107
Table 5.3-17 Power Descriptor Exponent and Mantissa values 107
Table 5.3-18 Power Descriptor Parameter Byte - 50mA 107
Table 5.3-19 Power Descriptor Parameter Byte - 56mA 108
Table 5.3-20 Power Descriptor for SCSI PC Card 108
Table 5.3-21 Timing Information Parameter Selection Byte 108
Table 5.3-22 Timing parameter scale factors 108
Table 5.3-23 Timing Information Exponent and Mantissa values 109
Table 5.3-24 Timing Configuration Information for SCSI Card 109
Table 5.3-25 I/O Space descriptor - I/O space definition byte 109
Table 5.3-26 Bus16 and Bus8 mapping 109
Table 5.3-27 I/O Range Descriptor Byte 110
Table 5.3-28 I/O Range Description Field for Configuration Index 20h 110
Table 5.3-29 I/O Space Descriptor Field for Configuration 20h 111
Table 5.3-30 I/O Space Descriptor Field for Configuration 21h 111
Table 5.3-31 IOAddrLines, Start Address and Length combinations 111
Table 5.3-32 Interrupt Request Description Structure For Configuration 20h 111
Table 5.3-33 Interrupt Request Description Structure For Configuration 21h 112
Table 5.3-34 Memory Space Description Structure For Configuration 20h 112
Table 5.3-35a Complete Configuration Table Entry tuple for Configuration Index 20h 113
Table 5.3-35b Complete Configuration Table Entry tuple for Configuration Index 20h 114
Table 5.3-36 Complete Configuration Table Entry tuple for Configuration Index 21h 114
Table 5.3-37 No Link Tuple 115
Table 5.3-38 End of tuple chain 115
Table 6.3-1 Card Services Callback Notification 124
Table 6.4-1 Configuration Table Entry tuple Example 136
Table 6.4-2 Identifying Card Services Version 148
Table 7.1-1 Flash Memory Types 152
Table 8.2-1 CardWare supported socket controllers 165
Table 8.2-2 CardWare Driver Requirements 169
Table 8.2-3 CardWare file list 170
Table 8.3-1 Supported Socket Controllers 171
Table 8.3-2 PCM3+ Driver Requirements 175
Table 8.3-3 PCM3+ Upper Memory Usage 175
Table 8.3-4 PCM3+ Versions 175
Table 8.3-5 PCM3+ File List 176
Table 8.4-1 CardSoft supported Socket Controllers 177
Table 8.4-2 CardSoft Driver Requirements 181
Table 8.4-3 CardSoft File List 181
Table 8.5-1 AMICARDZ Supported Socket Controllers 182
Table 8.5-2 AMICARDZ Driver Requirements 185
Table 8.5-3 AMICARDZ File List 186
Table 8.6-1 Supported Socket Controller 188
Table 8.6-2 OS/2 socket services support 190
Table 8.6-3 IBM PlayAtWill File List 191
Table 9.7-1 PC Card features supported in Windows 9x 199
Table 9.7-2 3.3V Support in Windows 9x 199
Table 9.7-3 Zoomed Video support in Windows 200
Table 9.7-4 Windows 9x PC Card Support Files 200
Table 9.9-1 Windows 95 Version Numbers 201
Table 9.9-2 PCCARD.VXD Versions 202
Table 9.9-3 PCI.VXD Versions 202
Table 9.9-4 CBSS.VXD Versions 202
Table 9.9-5 CONFIGMG.VXD Versions 202
Table 10.1-1 ZV Video Signals 206
Table 10.2-1 ZV Audio Signals 206
Table 10.3-1 Zoomed Video System Support Software 207
Table 10.3-2 Zoomed Video Card Support Software 207
Table 10.4-1 Host Controller Support of Zoomed Video 209
Table 10.5-1 Indirect Addressing Registers in Common Memory 210
Table 10.6-1 Zoomed Video Interface 212
Table 11.1-1 CardBus Major Features 214
Table 11.1-2 New Terms Used to Describe the CardBus 215
Table 11.1-3 Major Differences between CardBus, 16-bit PC Cards and PCI 2.0 216
Table 11.1-4a CardBus Signal Descriptions 216
Table 11.1-4b CardBus Signal Descriptions 217
Table 11.1-5 16-bit PC Card Initial Operation Voltage Detection 218
Table 11.1-6 CardBus Card Type Detection 218
Table 11.2-1a CardBus Bus Command Summary 220
Table 11.2-2 Byte Alignment for Various Bus Transactions 220
Table 11.2-3 CONFIG_ADDRESS Register 221
Table 11.7-1 CardBus Configuration Space 226
Table 11.7-2 Configuration Space - Command Register 226
Table 11.7-3 Configuration Space - Status Register 227
Table 11.7-4 Configuration Space - Cache Line Size 227
Table 11.7-5 Configuration Space - Latency Timer 227
Table 11.7-6 Configuration Space - Header Type 228
Table 11.7-7 Configuration Space - Built-in Self-Test Timer 228
Table 11.7-8 Configuration Space - Base Address Register, Memory Mode 228
Table 11.7-9 Configuration Space - Base Address Register, I/O mode 228
Table 11.7-10 Configuration Space - CIS Pointer 229
Table 11.7-11 Configuration Space - Expansion ROM Base Address 229
Table 11.7-12 Configuration Space - Interrupt Pin 230
Table 11.7-13 Configuration Space - Allocated Fields 230
Table 11.7-14 Configuration Space - Reserved Fields 230
Table 11.7-15 CONFIG_ADDRESS 231
Table 11.7-16 CONFIG_DATA 231
Table 11.8-1 Function Event Register 232
Table 11.8-2 Function Event Mask Register 232
Table 11.8-3 Function Present State Register 233
Table 11.8-4 Force Event Capability Register 233
Table 11.9-1 CardBus Expansion ROM Header 234
Table 11.9-2 CardBus Data Structure Field 234
Table 11.14-1 CardBus DC/AC Specifications 237
Table 13.0-1 Card Standards 247
Table 13.1-1 CompactFlash vs 16-bit PC Cards. 247
Table 13.1-2 CompactFlash External Specs 248
Table 13.1-3 PC Card to CompactFlash Comparison 248
Table 13.1-4 CompactFlash and PC Card Electrical Differences 250
Table 13.1-5 CompactFlash Signal Descriptions 251
Table 13.1-6 CompactFlash Pin Definitions 252
Table 13.2-1 Miniature Card - 16-bit PC Card Comparison 254
Table 13.2-2 Voltage Sense Signals 254
Table 13.2-3 Miniature Card Signal Description 256
Table 13.2-4 Miniature Card connector tabs 256
Table 13.2-5 Miniature Card Pin Descriptions 260
Table 13.3-1 MultiMedia Card vs Other Memory Card Standards 261
Table 13.3-2 Pin assignments in MMC Mode 262
Table 13.3-3 MMC Registers 262
Table 13.4-1 Small PCI vs CardBus 263
Table 13.4-2 SPCI Power vs CardBus 265
Table 13.4-3 SPCI Card Present Signals 265
Table 13.4-4 Small PCI Pinout 266
Table 13.5-1 SmartMedia Signal Description 268
Table 13.5-2 SmartMedia Pinout 268
Table 13.5-3 SmartMedia Memory Configuration 269
Table 13.6-1 Sony Memory Stick Specifications 270
Table 15.2-1 Modem Data Pumps 276
Table 15.2-2 FAX Data Pumps 277
Table 16.1-1 Memory PC Card Types 285
Table 16.1-2 Attribute Memory Types 286
Table 16.1-3 Flash Memory Types 286
Table 16.1-4 Current Consumption Designation 286
Table 16.2-1 PC Card Modem Parameters 306
Table 16.4-1 ATA Hard Disk Parameters 315
Table 16.5-1 Network PC Card Parameters 316
Table 16.7-1 PC Card Parameters 324
Table 16.8-1 PC Card Host Adapter Parameters 348
Table 16.9-1 PC Card Host Computer Parameters 357
Table 16.13-1 PC Card Socket Controller Parameters 372


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Updated June 24, 2005

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